The Constitution of December 17, 1962, amended by Law No. 1.249 of April 2, 2002, affirms that the Principality of Monaco is a sovereign and independent State within the framework of the general principles of international law and specific conventions with France (Const. , s. 1). It states that the principle of government is hereditary and constitutional monarchy. The Principality is a State governed by the rule of law attached to respect for fundamental rights and freedoms (Const., art. 2).
The Principality of Monaco, a state of 195 hectares, is landlocked in the Alpes-Maritimes department, near the Italian border, on the shores of the Mediterranean. The population is thirty five thousand inhabitants for a number of nationals of the order of seven thousand five hundred people. While numerous bilateral treaties have ensured the sovereignty and independence of the Principality of Monaco throughout its history, the international recognition of the Principality of Monaco has been consecrated by its admission to the United Nations Organization, of which it became the 183rd Member State on 28 May 1993.